Impacts of birth order
Later born children are more likely to be self employed than first borns.
In addition to employment, other outcomes studied were economic success, cognitive skills, personality, and health.
- Economic success - Later born children are less successful economically.
- Cognitive skills - Later born children have on average lower IQ's.
- Personality - First borns were found to be more emotionally stable, persistent, socially outgoing, willing to assume responsibility, and able to take initiative.
- Careers - First borns are more likely to be employed and work in top management whereas later borns are more likely to be self employed.
- Health - The probability of having high blood pressure and obesity declines with birth order. However, later borns are less likely to consider that they have good health and are more likely to smoke.
Study authors: Sandra E. Black, Erik Grönqvist & Björn Öckert